A difficult marathon and always unique, “acqua alta” is a particularity of Venice only.
For many has been the first (epic!) marathon, for others one of the objectives of season.

The recovery in both cases must adequately be managed with food and physical recovery:
- Protein is needed to repair and reverse muscle damage and fatigue resulting from prolonged distance training
- Vitamins and mineralsare compounds necessary for the healthy functioning of our bodies, vegetables and fruit and a supplement too
- Eating foods rich in fiber promotes regular bowel movements 
- No junk food if you have to reach a new goal
If you want to run a second marathon simply recovery and managing of overtraining syndrome is important.
1. Glutamine is an amino acid essential for many important homeostatic functions and for the optimal functioning of a number of tissues in the body, glutamine homeostasis is placed under stress, and glutamine reserves, particularly in the skeletal muscle, are depleted.
2. Protein repairs exercise-induced muscle damage, reduces the response from the stress hormone cortisol and even helps speed glycogen replacement.
3. L-Carnitine L-Tartate supplements are found to decrease muscle damage during recovery from resistance exercises.

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You've been training for months, and in two weeks the marathon will finally be here. Although you're excited and feel prepared, you also want to make sure you're fuelling your body with the right foods. Following a healthy eating plan prior to your race can help calm nerves and improve your performance.
Eat regular meals every few hours two weeks before your race. This is not only important for fuel , but it also prevents stomach-aches during your marathon. According to the organization, most runners have complained of gastrointestinal issues at one point or another in their career. Don't skip meals.
Don’t eat irritant agents as alcohol and take some pre and pro biotics till the race start.
Hints and tips:
- Regular and light meals
- Drink water and vegetables, fruit to maintain the correct hydration
- No alcohol and sauces

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What is done is done.

While all the physical work is in the bag, ensuring success on race day requires special attention the marathon taper. The marathon taper is a delicate balance of maintaining fitness while promoting recovery. 

To eat well, fruit and vegetable, at least 5 portions a day, to guarantee a suitable contribution of vitamins and mineral to the organism, essential for the comfort of runners that trains three times per week at least.

Three weeks before the competition it is important also Carnitine, that prevent oxidative stress, increase work capacity by decreasing lactic acid production and allows the body to get the energy production from fatty acids.

It is also important not to gain mass, so more protein during the day off.

In addition, rest.

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Some runners, who are training for specific races or certain goals, run too hard, run too many miles and don't allow for proper recovery time. They assume that running every day will help them get fitter and faster.

Overtraining is the leading cause of injury and burnout for runners.

Glutammine supplementation and proper alimentation during intensive training are the keys to prevent this syndrome.

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Most of the sodium we consume is in the form of sodium chloride, or the common table salt found in food and drinks. We take salt for granted these days as we've developed ways to make it widely available. Everyone loses a different amount of sodium in their sweat.

Up to a certain point, taking in plain water is enough to mitigate sweat losses. But, as those losses start to mount up, you need to replace sodium too to avoid your blood becoming diluted. This is a potentially disastrous condition called hyponatremia, which can certainly ruin your race and, tragically, has even been fatal on occasion.

For optimal sports performance, especially in hot environments, it is important to drink regularly. Beverages that contain sodium may help to rehydrate faster than those without, and added carbohydrates may ward off muscle fatigue, so we have to prefer isotonic drinks near sport.

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The digestion takes two hours to be complete if the meal is light, easy and no full of fat, 4 hours if the quantity of carbs is high and the meal too elaborate. Since many races start before 9 a.m. or earlier, you'll have to set your alarm for a very early wake-up to hit that four-hour window.

If that's not realistic, you may choose to eat your entire prerace meal just two hours before the start, choosing a light but complete breakfast.

You can eat an energy bar 60 minutes and drink a sports hydration drink up to 20 minutes before the race for an extra boost if you can't eat just before the race.

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Running a marathon with new shoes is a big mistake, and grabbing a few gels and drinking when you feel like it in training is not specific enough to optimally prepare you for race day. This haphazard approach to marathon nutrition usually results in cramps, bonking and bathroom issues.

You need to experiment with how your body reacts to the different flavors and consistency of gels and sports drinks, changing weather conditions (you’ll need to drink more on hot days, which if not practiced, can result in bloating and cramping), and how far apart your stomach can handle different amounts of fuel and fluids.

 Finding the right recipe takes time and practice.

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The recovery is important and often we do not care about it. 30 minutes after your training, the repair process begins. After intense training, you should drink an additional 500-1000 ml. Carbs, protein and sodium are important after your workout to boost your recovery.

In practice: fresh fruit or a juice and whey protein isolated (30 g).

The first meal approximately 1 hour after run. However, everyone is different and you have to listen to your body – it is a great communicator.

Before bed, magnesium does help a lot to support your system and sleeping. Sleep is an important factor for excellent recovery. Only runners who sleep enough will give their bodies the time to fully rilaecover from the training.

Dott.ssa Annalisa Faè R&D ProAction
The most common carbogels in the market are hypertonic, very high in carbohydrates.

"Hypertonic solutions have higher osmotic pressure. This means that a cell surrounded by a hypertonic solution will have a lower concentration of solute than the solution does, forcing water to diffuse out of the cell. This causes the cell to shrink."

If we consider the bowel, where sugars are absorbed, we understand that if we ingest an hypertonic gel it recalls water from the extracellular liquid and blood from the muscles.

To resolve the problem needs to drink water, simple water, after the ingestion of the gel, not mineral salts solutions or others kind of drinks.

Another choice could be select isotonic gels, but this will be explained next week.

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The food fibre is not a nourishing, it does not have an energetic value in terms of calories, but it is a very important element for the correct performance of some physiological functions of our body.

It is constituted by digestible complex carbohydrates, and it is mainly found in the cereals and in their by-products, in the fruit and in the vegetable.

It facilitates the attainment of the feeling of satisfaction, because it favours the increase of the volume of the ingested food and it the emptying of the stomach.

It accelerates the transit of the faeces, it reduces the absorption of sugars and fats, contributing to the control of the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood, it helps to prevent some intestinal pathologies.

We always recommends whole bread, pasta and rice during the meals.

Always for the reasons above the consumption of whole food close to the race have to be reduced, because of the effects that in a bowel already tried by the tension pre-competition.

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One of the most common errors are the "water load", to drink more water than t normal in an only moment and just before to start; this can bring a dangerous condition called Hyponatremia that can cause vomit, cramps and nausea.

The correct quantity of liquids must be calculated on the state of training, the bodily weight and the perspiration, for a man of 70 kg we recommend at least 350 ml of liquids; in fact, another important point is what it is assumed before the competition.

We recommend isotonic solutions in case of elevated temperatures, or slow absorption carbohydrates solutions if our organism does not ask for magnesium or potassium.

Important to check the colour of the urines (they must be pale yellow).

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Many sportsmen believe to earn a beer after a run or they make the pre-competition cheers.

Above we describe the negative effects of the alcohol on performance and recovery:
- it is absorbed by the bowel and brought to the liver that metabolizes it. During this passage toxic substances accumulate and reach the brain, with the effects well known on the abilities, according to the ingested quantity.
- it furnishes some calories that the organism is not able to use and reduces the ability to store glycogen (the energetic reserve that serves during a run, and not only)
- it alters the sleep cycle and it increases the levels of cortisol famous stress hormone.
- it contributes to dehydration because of its diuretic effect.

All these effects bring to a fall of the performance and, if assumed after the competition, to an incorrect recovery, negatively influencing also the reparation of the muscular microtrauma.

The assumption of alcoholic drinks should be forbidden for at least 24 hours in case of accident.

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Many athletes the evening before a marathon change their alimentary habits, seen the caloric consumption of the following day, without considering the fact that the food ingested then must be digested and metabolized. To eat fat and elaborate foods, or to exaggerate in the quantities, tires our organism and it makes us reach the departure tired: the digestion involves a caloric consumption, it is a "job" that the organism must develop, therefore heavy food = heavy job.

The feeding that precedes a sporting appointment can influence the quality of the performance, as I wrote before, and the quality of the sleep.

Avoid fat foods, too fibers and prefer simple foods, easy to digest.

Dinner must be rich in carbohydrates, to fill the reserves of muscular glycogen, ideal the long pasta, light seasonings without fat, the only one permitted is olive oil, a small quantity of vegetable and bread.

Could be added a drink of simple maltodextrins, or other slow absorption easily digestible carbohydrates.

Avoid alcohol.

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To recover to the best fast sugars, amino acids and a deserved rest are necessary.
The athlete very often experiments a particular type of discomfort and ended depression the competition or training, mainly therefore you/he/she must relax and to drink in suitable way and divided for favoring the restoration of the equilibrium and therefore to have the necessary support for the following trainings.
The phase most important of the recovery is the first half of hour, in which the body very quickly assimilates everything that that is ingested, therefore a liquid form is preferable already balanced for then eating with calm a light meal.
Sugars immediately must be absorb therefore they serve fast carbohydrates: dextrose as choice of election and to the final fruit, a juice, of the sweetened the.
After running with elevates temperatures is very important to reinstate some lost liquids with the perspiration, if we have been good in training we already know how much liquid we lose; otherwise it is considered around a liter, a liter and a half of liquids to be reinstated.
To understand the quantity of lost liquids needs to weigh before and after the trainings, the loss of weight is due to perspiration and respiraton; the decrease of weight must be restablished ingesting around 500 mls of liquids every 500g lost, dividing them in a certain arc of time to allow its correct absorption.
Important also are electrolytes, before, during and after the activity, above all sodium, potassium and magnesium.
The muscular pain felt two days after a competition (DOMS) is given by small lesions, only if we give to the muscular structures that of which they require for being sheltered we will reduce the onset of the pain and we will prepare the muscle to the solicitation of the following trainings.
To mend the muscular structures they serve the aminoacids: better if in free form or in peptides form (2 or 3 tied up aminoacids together) like in Peptide Hydro whey tabs to improve the absorption.
The branched (BCAA) aminoacids are important, but after competitions of long duration, they are preferable or still better the whey proteins isolated, with a complete composition.
In case of exhaustion, of tiredness very pronounced and difficulty to recover from I strive him/it the rest it is important and to appraise the addition of vitamin C for the restoration of the immunitary defences and to promote the synthesis of collagen basic substance of the cartilage.
After these first 30 minutes, in which I must very quickly reinstate all the necessary, a solid meal is needed: short pasta or rice with tomato and vegetables, cheese or turkey, chicken and avoid alcohol.
Dott.ssa Annalisa Faè, R&D ProAction
Running is an activity that promotes wellbeing; it releases brain chemicals that promote exhilaration and euphoria, improves your mood, reduces anxiety and prevents stress. Exposure to sunlight, motor activity and healthy diet are linked to serotonin synthesis.
It is a form of relaxation and meditation. Physical exertion takes the mind away from mental and emotional stress. Exercise requires focus and drive. When you push your body to keep moving forward, it provides you with relief because it takes your concentration off anxiety and forces you to focus on the physical self. It allows you to fixate your energy on what is happening in the present instead of on the future or past. When the mind is calm, it is easy to think more rationally, make decisions and solve problems. As a result, a calm mind contributes to a happy and relaxed mood.
Healthy meals offer vitamins; minerals and acids that our body needs to manage the nervous system, hormones and the immune system. When you exercise and practice a healthy diet, you are also managing a blood sugar level and obtaining more of the antioxidants your body needs. This produces more serotonin, which is needed to make us feel calm and happy.
Serotonin, the pleasure hormone. There is a strong link between well-being and the feeling of happiness and serotonin.
The constitution of the WHO states “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being”, a series of recent studies negative emotions were associated with increased disability, other studies found a solid link between feeling good and living longer.

Serotonin influencing mood.
There is a positive correlation between serotonin synthesis and the hours of sunlight, serotonin is highest during the light part of the day.
What about exercise?
Motor activity increases release and synthesis of serotonin in human brain and there is an increase of serotonin precursor tryptophan that persists after exercise.
Fatigue is associated with an increase in plasma tryptophan and decrease plasma level of BCAA, the BCAAs inhibit tryptophan transport into the brain, so more BCAA= less fatigue.
If you have yet to reap the benefits of running or exercising, it is essential that you see for yourself what positive effect it has on the mind, body and spirit, so…go out and run!

Dr. Annalisa Faè R&D ProAction
Starting line at sunset on a new route.
7:45 pm departure, then lunch based on carbohydrates: pasta with light dressing, avoid irritants (tomato, chilli ...) or hardly digestible (sausages, processed sauces ...), a snack about two hours before with a sandwich with raw or turkey breast.
Important hydration, the evening start could be a problem... hydration as healthy everyday habits with water with high fixed residue and mineral salts without exaggeration, start an hour before starting with a solution of carbohydrates and electrolytes, about 500 ml.
Before starting dink a shot with low-dose caffeine and substances that prepare the muscles for the activity.
At each refreshment drink at least a couple of sips of water or mineral salts, water with gels if not specified on the label that it is isotonic gels (about 60 ml of gel with a carbohydrate content of less than 50% and in the list of ingredients in first positions complex carbohydrates such as maltodextrins or cyclodextrins).
At the fifteenth kilometer a gel with branched chain amino acids and slow-release carbohydrates.
3 kilometers from the end a gel with fast carbohydrates and caffeine for the final sprint.
Recover properly the lost liquids, not only water but water with mineral salts (magnesium, potassium, sodium) and fast sugars (first of all dextrose), amino acids for the shelter of the musculature subjected to intense physical effort, recommended at least 25 grams of protein for optimal recovery.
After one-hour solid easily digestible meal and avoid processed foods to avoid further physical stress.
In the morning at breakfast carnitine, at least two grams given its poor absorption.
Sportsman needs fruit, vegetables, meat must be lean and carbohydrates from whole sources. However, before competitions, fiber and whole carbohydrates must be avoided because of the effect they have on the intestinal motility, which is already sufficiently stressed during the competition.
Before the start there is often a state of agitation that leads to disequilibrium in the gut, try to remember that the race is fun and through the music or laugh with friends we lower the state of stress.
In the case of irritated bowel fifteen days before a competition, a cycle of glutamine and lactic ferments may be useful for restoring the stressed mucosal integrity.
The maintenance of the hydration is an important aim in all kind of sports, and lifestyle in general. Water corresponds around to the 60% of the bodily weight and its turnover is of 9% with a loss of around 2,5L through perspiration, sweat, urine ...Then?!
Don't wait to be thirsty (the mechanism is activated when we are already in lack of liquids or electrolytes) but don’t force yourself to drink.
To adequately drink before a competition / training: not to do a "water's load" but to slowly assume around 400-500 mls of isotonic solution, small sips before the start.
From literature during the activity dinks around 200 mls every 20 minutes; in practice during racing is almost impossible to calculate how to drink, therefore to drink at least a pair of sips
To restore around 125-150% of the loss: for a loss of 1 kg of bodily weight for example corresponds to around 1 liter liquids and to recover I must introduce 1500ml 1250 of it.
To prefer isotonic drinks to the simple water, the content of sodium and carbohydrates furnishes energy and it favors the absorption and a fast passage in the stomach.
Which is the best water for the sportsman?
Waters are not all equal ones, those to contained lower part of sodium are not useful for the athlete, the sodium it is the electrolyte mostly lost with sweat and its loss must be replaced.
The ideal water to be absorbed for the sportsman has a fixed residue of 500 mgs / liter, less is very useful for the preparation ipo or isotonic solutions.
Concluding we remember that fruit and vegetables contain around 85% of water, therefore we also underline the importance of 5 portions of fruit and vegetable a day for their content of water, not only for the content in vitamins, mineral and antioxidants.